2018/2019 School of Chinese Research Student Seminar
皇太極病亡考 Examining the Causes of Huang Taiji’s Death
區德偉 Au Tak Wai
January 25, 2019 (Friday); 5:30-6:45pm
Room 730, Run Run Shaw Tower, Centennial Campus
對於清太宗皇太極 (1592-1643，1627-1643在位)的突然離世，清代官方文獻以無疾而終作為結案。然而，在官方文獻中卻又透露了皇太極生前患病的史料，這就否定了無疾之說。而史學界亦因此對其死因提出了各種的質疑，並作出不同的見解和詮釋，惟至今尚未有定案。惟據朝鮮文獻《瀋陽日記》(註1) 內所提供關於當時在瀋陽的皇太極在患病時向朝鮮求藥，並要求朝鮮醫官替他診症與及在斷症後處方用藥的記錄 ，證實皇太極在身故前已確實患有多種疾病，且病情亦相當嚴重的珍貴史料，而在他患病的期間，再考察他所處時際，既遭喪妃之痛的打擊，加以在他治國的時期 ，長期忙於征戰狀態，當為他帶來了沉重的壓力，在身心疲累的情況下，當令到病情惡化起來，最終導致因多種併合症而猝死。這次學術報告主要以朝鮮文獻《瀋陽日記》所提供關於皇太極患病的情況和診症用藥的記錄作為依據 ，並參照清代官方文獻作比較 ，經過整理相關的史料後，嘗試從現今醫學的通識考察，通過皇太極用藥的資料，剖析其病理，從而解構其死因所在。
The official record of the Qing Dynasty describes the death of Huang Taiji as “not caused by any illness”. However, the same official record also reveals some Huang Taiji’s illness before his death, contradicting the statement of “no disease”. Historians have therefore raised questions about the exact causes of his death and offered various interpretations. Up to now there has been no consensus among historians on this question. However, according to the Korean literature “Shenyang Diary”, (Note 1) when Huang Taiji was in Shenyang taking ill he requested medicine from the Koreans, and summoned Korean medical officers to see him. There is record in the Diary on the prescription medications, thus confirming that Huang Taiji had indeed suffered from a variety of diseases before his death, and his medical condition was serious. During his illness, he suffered from the pain of losing his wife, and was busy with military campaigns for a long time, all of which brought huge pressure on him and he was virtually in a state of exhaustion. A deterioration in his health ensued, resulting in sudden death owing to multiple complications. This presentation mainly uses the historical materials in the Korean literature “Shenyang Diary” on Huang Taiji’s diseases and the medical prescriptions given, and compares them with those in the official record of the Qing Dynasty. Through relevant historical materials, and employing general knowledge of the current medical science to examine the data and pathology of Huang Taiji’s diseases, the causes of his death hopefully can be clarified.
(Note 1) Crown Prince Sohyeon of Joseon Dynasty was detained by Huang Taiji in Shenyang as a hostage and his notes about his life in Shenyang were recorded and compiled into a book by the officials of Joseon Dynasty.
ALL ARE WELCOME!